Wednesday, 11 August 2021 10:06

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B and C Viruses Among Hemodialysis Patients in Dhamar Governorate, Yemen Featured

Rate this item
(0 votes)

Original Research:

Mohammed Q. Salah, Abdulsalam M. Al-Mekdad, Khalil I. Al-Shakhab, Ashraf A. Al-Bahla, Emad A. Al-Moushki, Hesham A. Al-Yamani, Ameer M. Al-Tam, Emad A. Ahmed


Background: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at an increased risk of acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections due to high number of blood transfusion sessions, prolonged vascular access, high exposure to infected patients and contaminated equipment.

Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections and the risk factors for transmission of viral hepatitis B and C among patients who attended dialysis center in Dhamar governorate, Yemen.

Methods: In this cross‑sectional study, a total of 168 hemodialysis patients from hemodialysis center were interviewed. Information was collected by pretested questionnaire. The baseline and follow up data of HBV and HCV serology were gathered from medical records.

Results: The overall prevalence of HBV, HCV and HBV & HCV co-infection among the study sample was 29.17%, 10.12% and 0.6%, respectively. Duration of hemodialysis was found to be a statistically significant (P < 0.05) risk factor for HBV and HCV infections.

Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV and HCV infections in HD center in Dhamar governorate is still an important health issue in Yemen. Longer duration of dialysis is a major risk factor for HBV & HCV infections. However, further studies with a large number of cases and in different geographic places are needed to better determination of the prevalence and risk factors of HBV and HCV in HD patients.

Keywords: Prevalence, Risk factors, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Hemodialysis, Yemen



Mohammed Q. Salah*, Abdulsalam M. Al-Mekdad, Khalil I. Al-Shakhab, Ashraf A. Al-Bahla, Emad A. Al-Moushki, Hesham A. Al-Yamani, Ameer M. Al-Tam, Emad A. Ahmed
Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Thamar University, Dhamar, Yemen 
For Correspondence:
Mohammed Q. Salah*
Thamar University Al-Wahdah Teaching Hospital, Ma’bar city, Dhamar, Yemen
Tel: +967 770 377 173
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


  1. Lavanchy D. Hepatitis B, virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and current and emerging prevention and control measures. J Viral Hepat. 2004:11:97–107.
  2. Hayashmi J, Kishiharar Y, Yamaji K, Yoshimura E, Yawakami Y, Akazawa K, et al. Transmission of hepatitis C virus by health care workers in rural area of Japan. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995; 90:794-9
  3. Stanaway JD, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, Fitzmaurice C, Vos T, Abubakar I, et al. The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2016 Sep 10;388 (10049) :1081-1088. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30579-7. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
  4. Lavanchy D. Public health measures in the control of viral hepatitis: A world health organization perspective for the next millennium. J GastroenterolHepatol. 2002;17S4: s452-s459.
  5. Hayes PC, Sympson KJ, Garden OJ, editors. Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine; 19th ed. Philadelphia Churchill Livingston; 2002.
  6. Liu Z, Hou J. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) dual infection Int J Med Sci. 2006;3(2):57–62.
  7. Huo TI, Huang YH, Hsia CY, Su CW, Lin HC, Hsu CY, et al. Characteristics and outcome of patients with dual hepatitis B and C-associated hepatocellular carcinoma: are they different from patients with single virus infection? Liver Int 2009, 5:767–773.
  8. World Health Organization. Hepatitis C. Fact sheet no 164. Available at Updated: April 2017; Accessed: June 12, 2017
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral hepatitis. Available at Updated: May 26, 2016; Accessed: June 13, 2017.
  10. Saxena AK, Panhotra BR.The Impact of Nurse Understaffing on the Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus in a Hospital-Based Hemodialysis Unit. MedPrincPract 2004;13: 129–135.
  11. Russel RCG, Williams NS, Bulstrode CJK, editors. The Liver. In: Bailey and Loves” Short Practise of Surgery, 24th ed. London: Chapman and Haal 2004;1076.
  12. Seef LB. Natural history of hepatitis C. Am J Med 1999; 107:10-15.
  13. Cuschieri SA, Steele RJC, Moosa AR, editors. Essential surgical practice, 4th ed. London: Arnold; 2002.
  14. Fabrizi F, Dixit V, Messa P. Impact of hepatitis C on survival in dialysis patients: a link cardiovascular mortality? J Viral Hepat. 2012; PMid:22863263 19(9):601-7.
  15. Fabrizi F, Martin P, Dixit V, Brezina M, Russell J, Conrad A, et al. Detection of de novo hepatitis C virus infection by polymerase chain reaction in hemodialysis patients. Am J Nephrol. 1999;19(3):383-8. doi: 10.1159/000013482. PMID: 10393375.
  16. Bukh J, Wantzin P, Krogsgaard K, Knudsen F, Purcell RH, Miller RH. High prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in dialysis patients: failure of commercially available antibody tests to identify a significant number of patients with HCV infection. Copenhagen Dialysis HCV Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1993 Dec;168(6):1343-8. doi: 10.1093/infdis/168.6.1343.
  17. Fabrizi F, Poordad F, Martin P. Hepatitis C infection and the patients with end-stage renal disease. Hepatology. 2002; 36:3–10
  18. Al-Hegami MA, Al-Mamari A, Al-Kadasse AS, Al-Gasha’a FAS, Al-Hag S, Al-Hegami AAS. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Infections among Patients with Chronic Renal Failure in Zabeed City, Yemen Republic. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2015;5:136-142. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2015.53017.
  19. Aman K, Al-Dubai SA, Aman R, Hawash A, Alshagga M, Kassim S. Prevalence and associated factors of hepatitis C virus infection among renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis in three health centers in Aden, Yemen: a cross sectional study. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2015; 26: 380-385.
  20. Almawi WY, Qadi AA, Tamim H, Ameen G, Bu-Ali A, Arrayid S, et al.Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus among dialysis patients in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. Transplant Proc. 2004;36(6):1824–6.
  21. Boulaajaj K, Elomari Y, Elmaliki B, Madkouri B, Zaid D, Benchemsi N. Prevalence of hepatitis C, hepatitis B and HIV infection among haemodialysis patients in Ibn-Rochd university hospital, Casablanca. Nephrol Ther. 2005;1(5):274–84.5.
  22. Al Zabadi H, Rahal H, Fuqaha R.Hepatitis B and C prevalence among hemodialysis patients in the West Bank hospitals, Palestine. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:41DOI 10.1186/s12879-016-1359-8
  23. Morteza Alibakhshikenari. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses’ Infections among Hemodialysis Patients in Tehran, Iran. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res. 2018;11(2). BJSTR. MS.ID.002065. DOI: 10.26717/ BJSTR.2018.11.002065.
  24. Ali N, Hussain W, Hayat A, Shah T, Wen R, Zeb I, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C viruses among haemodialysis patients: a multicentric study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Jan;31(1):29-33. doi: 10.1097/MEG.0000000000001220.
  25. Amira CO, Lesi OA. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C infection among Nigerian subjects with chronic kidney disease. J Clin Sci. 2017;14:58-61.
  26. Salvatierra K, Florez H. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections in hemodialysis patients. F1000Research. 2016;5:1910.
  27. Joukar F, Besharati S, Mirpour H, Mansour‑Ghanaei F. Hepatitis C and hepatitis B seroprevalence and associated risk factors in hemodialysis patients in Guilan province, north of Iran: HCV and HBV seroprevalence in hemodialysis patients. Hepat Mon. 2011;11:178‑
  28. Zahedi MJ, Darvish Moghaddam S, Alavian SM, Dalili M. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis Viruses B, C, D and HIV Infection Among Hemodialysis Patients in Kerman Province, South‑East Iran. Hepat Mon. 2012;12:339‑
  29. Kalantari H, Ebadi S, Yaran M, Maracy MR, Shahshahan Z. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C viruses among hemodialysis patients in Isfahan, Iran. Adv Biomed Res. 2014; 3:73.
  30. Elkader Y El Ottol A, Elmanama AA, Ayesh BM. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C viruses among haemodialysis patients in Gaza strip, Palestine. Virol J. 2010;7:210. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-7-210.
  31. Covic A, Iancu L, Apetrei C, Scripcaru D, Volovat C, Mititiuc I, et al. Hepatits virus infection in haemodialysis patients from Moldavia. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999;14:40‑
  32. Al Hijazat M, Ajlouni Y. Hepatitis B infection among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis at the Royal Medical Services in Jordan. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2008;19:260‑
  33. Silva LK, Silva MB, Rodart IF, Lopes GB, Costa FQ, Melo ME, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV genotypes of hemodialysis patients in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006;39:595‑
  34. de Medina M, Ashby M, Schlüter V, Hill M, Leclerq B, Pennell JP, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C and G virus infection in chronic hemidialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998;31:224‑6.
Read 1124 times Last modified on Wednesday, 11 August 2021 10:17

About AMH

Annals of Medicine & Health (AMH) is a peer reviewed medical journal that established and published by a governmental medical faculty titled Thamar University Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences (TUFMHS). 


Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences AL-Mohafadhah St. Dhamar City - Yemen

P.O.Box: 87246

Tel Fax: +967 6 509 578

Tel No: +967 6 509 577


Copyright © 2019 Thamar University - Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences - Annals of Medicine & Health . All Rights Reserved. | Developed By ProSite Yemen